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乔治 奥威尔:多一个人读《一九八四》,这世界上就多了一个自由的灵魂
2020年12月18日 宗教交流 ⁄ 共 4062字 暂无评论 ⁄ 被围观 255 views+

Born Eric Blair in India in 1903, George Orwell was educated as a scholarship student at prestigious boarding schools in England. Because of his background—he famously described his family as “lower-upper-middle class”—he never quite fit in, and felt oppressed and outraged by the dictatorial control that the schools he attended exercised over their students’ lives. After graduating from Eton, Orwell decided to forego college in order to work as a British Imperial Policeman in Burma. He hated his duties in Burma, where he was required to enforce the strict laws of a political regime he despised. His failing health, which troubled him throughout his life, caused him to return to England on convalescent leave. Once back in England, he quit the Imperial Police and dedicated himself to becoming a writer.

Inspired by Jack London’s 1903 book The People of the Abyss, which detailed London’s experience in the slums of London, Orwell bought ragged clothes from a second-hand store and went to live among the very poor in London. After reemerging, he published a book about this experience, entitled Down and Out in Paris and London. He later lived among destitutecoal miners in northern England, an experience that caused him to give up on capitalism in favor of democratic socialism. In 1936, he traveled to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War, where he witnessed firsthand the nightmarish atrocities committed by fascist political regimes.

Unlike many British socialists in the 1930s and 1940s, Orwell was not enamored of the Soviet Union and its policies, nor did he consider the Soviet Union a positive representation of the possibilities of socialist society. He could not turn a blind eye to the cruelties and hypocrisies of Soviet Communist Party, which had overturned the semifeudal system of the tsars only to replace it with the dictatorial reign of Joseph Stalin. Orwell became a sharp critic of both capitalism and communism, and is remembered chiefly as an advocate of freedom and a committed opponent of communist oppression. His two greatest anti-totalitarian novels—Animal Farm and 1984—form the basis of his reputation. Orwell died in 1950, only a year after completing 1984, which many consider his masterpiece.
与上世纪三四十年代众多的英国社会主义者不同,奥威尔并不是苏联及其政权的追随者,也从未将苏联视为可能实现社会主义社会的代表。他目睹了苏联共产党的残酷和伪善,尽管苏联共产党推翻了沙皇的半封建制度,却同样以约瑟夫•斯大林(Joseph Stalin)的独裁统治取而代之。奥威尔对资本主义和共产主义进行了尖锐的批评,被视为自由的倡导者和共产主义压迫的坚定反对者。他最经典的两部反极权主义小说——《动物庄园》和《1984》——奠定了他的声望。奥威尔于1950年去世,一年前他刚刚完成了《1984》,许多人将这部作品视为他最后的杰作。

adj. 享有声望的,受尊敬的,地位显赫的

adj. 独裁的,专政的;专横傲慢的

n. 政权,政体;社会制度;管理体制

n. 贫民窟;脏乱的地方v. 去贫民窟;将就适应

adj. 衣衫褴褛的;粗糙的;参差不齐的

adj. 穷困的 n. 赤贫者v. 使穷困;夺去

adj. 可怕的;恶梦似的;不愉快的

v. 使迷恋,使倾心

adj. 半封建的

Unlike many British socialists in the 1930s and 1940s,(1) Orwell was not enamored of the Soviet Union and its policies, (2)nor did he (3)consider the Soviet Union a positive representation of the possibilities of socialist society.
1.Orwell ...policies:主句,be enamored of表示“迷恋、醉心于”。
2.nor ...society:nor放句首后面的句子要用倒装结构,表示“也不”,其结构为“Neither / Nor+助动词 / 情态动词 / be动词+主语”。
3.consider ...representation:consider作“认为”之意时, 后面可以接“宾语+宾补” 的结构,其结构主要是“to be+名词/ 形容词”,to be可以省略,这里a positive representation为宾语补足语。


奥威尔短暂的一生,颠沛流离,疾病缠身,郁郁不得志,一直被视为危险的异端。在他为数不多的作品中,《动物庄园》与《一九八四》都影响巨大,他以先知般冷峻的笔调勾画出人类阴暗的未来,令读者心中震颤。他将悲喜剧融为一体,使作品具有极大的张力。奥威尔的卓异之处就在于,并非仅仅用小说来影射个别的人与政权,而是直接揭露语言的堕落。在奥威尔眼里,语言是掩盖真实的幕布,粉饰现实的工具,蛊惑民心的艺术。他坚信,"在一个语言堕落的时代,作家必须保持自己的独立性,在抵抗暴力和承担苦难的意义上做一个永远的抗议者。" 他因作品中的深刻思想,被称为"一代人的冷峻良知"。有评论家如此说:"多一个人看奥威尔,就多了一份自由的保障"。