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乔治 奥威尔:多一个人读《一九八四》,这世界上就多了一个自由的灵魂
2020年12月18日 宗教交流 ⁄ 共 4062字 暂无评论 ⁄ 被围观 255 views+

Born Eric Blair in India in 1903, George Orwell was educated as a scholarship student at prestigious boarding schools in England. Because of his background—he famously described his family as “lower-upper-middle class”—he never quite fit in, and felt oppressed and outraged by the dictatorial control that the schools he attended exercised over their students’ lives. After graduating from Eton, Orwell decided to forego college in order to work as a British Imperial Policeman in Burma. He hated his duties in Burma, where he was required to enforce the strict laws of a political regime he despised. His failing health, which troubled him throughout his life, caused him to return to England on convalescent leave. Once back in England, he quit the Imperial Police and dedicated himself to becoming a writer.
乔治·奥威尔于1903年出生于印度,回英国定居后,就读于英国著名的寄宿学校,上学期间还获得了奖学金。由于家庭背景不同——他将其描述为“中下层阶级”——他在所有学生中显得不太合群,学校对学生生活采取专断控制型管理方式,他对此感到极其压抑和愤怒。从伊顿公学毕业后,奥威尔并没有选择继续上大学,而是去英国殖民地缅甸当了一名警察。他厌恶这份工作,因为工作要求他将苛刻的法律法规付诸在当地民众身上,他鄙视法律背后的这种政权体制。工作期间,他的健康状况每况愈下,最后在修养期间回到了英国,健康问题也自此在他的生命中留下了一个长久的隐患。回到英国后,他辞去了帝国警察的职务,决定成为一名专职作家。

Inspired by Jack London’s 1903 book The People of the Abyss, which detailed London’s experience in the slums of London, Orwell bought ragged clothes from a second-hand store and went to live among the very poor in London. After reemerging, he published a book about this experience, entitled Down and Out in Paris and London. He later lived among destitutecoal miners in northern England, an experience that caused him to give up on capitalism in favor of democratic socialism. In 1936, he traveled to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War, where he witnessed firsthand the nightmarish atrocities committed by fascist political regimes.
杰克·伦敦1903年出版的《深渊中的人们》一书,让奥威尔对伦敦贫民区的生活有了更具体的理解,在这本书的启发下,奥威尔从一家二手商店买了一些旧衣服,开始与伦敦的贫民一起生活。后来,回归正常生活后,他便以这段经历为题材写就了《巴黎伦敦落魄记》一书。随后,经过与英格兰北部贫困的煤矿工人相处,他放弃了资本主义信仰,转而支持民主社会主义。1936年,他远赴西班牙,参与西班牙内战报道,亲眼目睹了法西斯政权下噩梦般的暴行。

Unlike many British socialists in the 1930s and 1940s, Orwell was not enamored of the Soviet Union and its policies, nor did he consider the Soviet Union a positive representation of the possibilities of socialist society. He could not turn a blind eye to the cruelties and hypocrisies of Soviet Communist Party, which had overturned the semifeudal system of the tsars only to replace it with the dictatorial reign of Joseph Stalin. Orwell became a sharp critic of both capitalism and communism, and is remembered chiefly as an advocate of freedom and a committed opponent of communist oppression. His two greatest anti-totalitarian novels—Animal Farm and 1984—form the basis of his reputation. Orwell died in 1950, only a year after completing 1984, which many consider his masterpiece.
与上世纪三四十年代众多的英国社会主义者不同,奥威尔并不是苏联及其政权的追随者,也从未将苏联视为可能实现社会主义社会的代表。他目睹了苏联共产党的残酷和伪善,尽管苏联共产党推翻了沙皇的半封建制度,却同样以约瑟夫•斯大林(Joseph Stalin)的独裁统治取而代之。奥威尔对资本主义和共产主义进行了尖锐的批评,被视为自由的倡导者和共产主义压迫的坚定反对者。他最经典的两部反极权主义小说——《动物庄园》和《1984》——奠定了他的声望。奥威尔于1950年去世,一年前他刚刚完成了《1984》,许多人将这部作品视为他最后的杰作。

1.prestigious
adj. 享有声望的,受尊敬的,地位显赫的

2.dictatorial
adj. 独裁的,专政的;专横傲慢的

3.regime
n. 政权,政体;社会制度;管理体制

4.slum
n. 贫民窟;脏乱的地方v. 去贫民窟;将就适应

5.ragged
adj. 衣衫褴褛的;粗糙的;参差不齐的

6.destitute
adj. 穷困的 n. 赤贫者v. 使穷困;夺去

7.nightmarish
adj. 可怕的;恶梦似的;不愉快的

8.enamor
v. 使迷恋,使倾心

9.semifeudal
adj. 半封建的

Unlike many British socialists in the 1930s and 1940s,(1) Orwell was not enamored of the Soviet Union and its policies, (2)nor did he (3)consider the Soviet Union a positive representation of the possibilities of socialist society.
1.Orwell ...policies:主句,be enamored of表示“迷恋、醉心于”。
2.nor ...society:nor放句首后面的句子要用倒装结构,表示“也不”,其结构为“Neither / Nor+助动词 / 情态动词 / be动词+主语”。
3.consider ...representation:consider作“认为”之意时, 后面可以接“宾语+宾补” 的结构,其结构主要是“to be+名词/ 形容词”,to be可以省略,这里a positive representation为宾语补足语。

乔治·奥威尔

乔治·奥威尔(1903年6月25日-1950年1月21日),英国著名小说家、记者和社会评论家。他的代表作《动物庄园》和《1984》是反极权主义的经典名著,其中《1984》是20世纪影响最大的英语小说之一。
奥威尔短暂的一生,颠沛流离,疾病缠身,郁郁不得志,一直被视为危险的异端。在他为数不多的作品中,《动物庄园》与《一九八四》都影响巨大,他以先知般冷峻的笔调勾画出人类阴暗的未来,令读者心中震颤。他将悲喜剧融为一体,使作品具有极大的张力。奥威尔的卓异之处就在于,并非仅仅用小说来影射个别的人与政权,而是直接揭露语言的堕落。在奥威尔眼里,语言是掩盖真实的幕布,粉饰现实的工具,蛊惑民心的艺术。他坚信,"在一个语言堕落的时代,作家必须保持自己的独立性,在抵抗暴力和承担苦难的意义上做一个永远的抗议者。" 他因作品中的深刻思想,被称为"一代人的冷峻良知"。有评论家如此说:"多一个人看奥威尔,就多了一份自由的保障"。

未来的世界是什么样的?
每个时代的人对此都充满了构思和遐想,努力去建设一个自由、平等、富裕、和谐的世界。“乌托邦”是人类对未来美好向往的一个代名词。
但是,未来就一定就会真的美好吗?
谁也说不清楚。
王小波曾写到“对我来说《1984》已经不是乌托邦,而是历史,我们已经身历,且不断重演,万变不离其宗。
但是今天,我们依然要感谢奥威尔,虽然他指出了一种黑暗的世界模型,触动人心,发人深省,但他的启示让这个世界上所有的民族和精英对自由、平等、民主、富强倍感珍惜,大家亦步亦趋,小心翼翼地呵护着这些美好的东西。
很庆幸,我们生活在这个美丽的新时代,它不是《1984》里所描述的黑暗世界,《1984》注定是面镜子,它将影响过去的、现在的和未来的很多人。

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